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两栖纲:日本大鲵

日本大鲵(オオサンショウウオ)

日本大鲵(Andrias japonicus)是一种水生以及习惯于夜间活动的两栖动物,是世界第二大的大鲵(第一为中国大鲵——俗称娃娃鱼)。主要分布在日本的本州到岐阜西部,四国和九州的局部地区的山区河流的上游及水质清澈的山溪中。因其身上有一种浓烈的、似辣椒叶子的味道,故又被称为大山椒鱼。


日本大鲵的Friends


游戏中的日本大鲵Friends


现实中的日本大鲵

中文学名 日本大鲵 有尾目
拉丁学名 Andrias japonicus 隐鳃鲵科
日文俗名 大山椒魚 大鲵属
英文俗名 Japanese Giant Salamander 日本大鲵
动物界 命名作者 Temminck
脊索动物门 命名年代 1836
两栖纲
  • 体长一般为60厘米左右、体重25千克;最大可达1.5米,重45千克。在颜色上通常是暗棕色中间夹杂着黒色色斑。它们有着扁平的身躯,宽大的头部,短小的四肢和细小的眼睛。在其头部还有很多疣突(可理解为小疙瘩)。它们的疣突不像中国大鲵成对存在,而是单个存在。
  • 属于夜行性动物,一般白天会潜伏于岩石下发缝隙中休息。
  • 可以通过改变皮肤下的细胞色素流动进行伪装变色,并且全身存在的疣突会帮助感应周围震动,帮助捕食。
  • 捕食时依靠自身强大吸力,吸入猎物。
  • 依靠表皮对水中的氧气进行吸收。
  • 有观点认为,日本大鲵是日本妖怪——河童的原型之一。
  • 日本大鲵与中国大鲵形态很像,主要区别在于日本大鲵头部背面疣突大而明显,且单个出现(图a),而中国大鲵头部背面散布小疣粒,眼眶上下方至吻端、口角后方的小疣粒排列成行(图b). 中国大鲵在日本为入侵物种,与日本大鲵杂交后的个体头顶密布小疣粒(图c)。

保护级别

列入《世界自然保护联盟》(IUCN)2012年濒危物种红色名录ver3.1——近危(NT)。
列入《华盛顿公约》CITESⅠ级保护动物。

参考资料


评论

Martin, 2017/05/02 14:01

这个日本大鲵的照片根本看不出那边是头那边是屁股啊

宇宙第三圆厨, 2017/05/03 12:47

事实上朝向这边的是头。

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  _____  ____  __  __   __  ___   __ 
 / ___/ /_  / / / / /  /  |/  /  / / 
/ (_ /   / /_/ /_/ /  / /|_/ /  / /__
\___/   /___/\____/  /_/  /_/  /____/
 
两栖纲/日本大鲵.txt · 最后更改: 2017/12/10 10:54 (外部编辑)

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